Fraternity Brands

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Fraternity Branding? | Yahoo Answers

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Human branding

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Human branding or stigmatizing is the process in which a mark, generally an emblem or ornamental trend, is burned into the surface of a dwelling particular person, with the aim that the ensuing scar makes it permanent. This is carried out the usage of a hot or very chilly branding iron. It subsequently makes use of the bodily techniques of farm animals branding on a human, both with consent as a type of frame modification; or under coercion, as a punishment or to spot an enslaved, oppressed, or in a different way managed person. It will also be practiced as a "rite of passage", e.g. inside of a tribe, or to indicate membership of or acceptance into a company.

Modern strike branding

Etymology

The English verb to burn, attested because the 12th century, is a mix of Old Norse brenna "to burn, light", and two at the start distinct Old English verbs: bærnan "to kindle" (transitive) and beornan "to be on fire" (intransitive), each from the Proto-Germanic root bren(wanan), most likely from a Proto-Indo-European root bhre-n-u, from base root bhereu- "to boil forth, well up." In Dutch, (ver)branden mean "to burn", brandmerk a branded mark; in a similar fashion, in German, Brandzeichen means "a brand" and brandmarken, "to brand".

Sometimes, the word cauterize is used. This is known in English since 1541, and is derived by means of Medieval French cauteriser from Late Latin cauterizare "to burn or brand with a hot iron", itself from Greek καυτηριάζειν, kauteriazein, from καυτήρ kauter "burning or branding iron", from καίειν kaiein "to burn". However cauterization is now usually understood to mean a medical procedure – specifically to forestall bleeding.

Historical use

Marking the rightless Branding of a unadorned enslaved woman in Africa

The starting place may be the ancient treatment of a slave (often without legal rights) as livestock.

European, American and different colonial slavers branded tens of millions of slaves all through the length of the Atlantic slave business. Sometimes there were a number of brandings, e.g. for the Portuguese crown and the (consecutive) personal owner(s), an additional cross after baptism in addition to via African slave catchers. Ancient Romans marked runaway slaves with the letters FUG (for fugitivus). In fashionable Sudan there are reviews of branding of slaves.[1] An intermediate case between formal slavery and felony law is when a convict is branded and legally decreased, with or without cut-off date, to a slave-like status, equivalent to on the galleys (in France branded GAL or TF travaux forcés 'compelled labour' until 1832), in a penal colony, or auctioned to a personal owner.As punishment Branding of the Huguenot John Leclerc all the way through the 16th century persecutions. Whipping and branding of thieves in Denmark, 1728

In criminal legislation, branding with a sizzling iron used to be a mode of punishment consisting of marking the subject as though goods or animals, on occasion concurrently with their relief of standing in existence.

Brand marks have also been used as a punishment for convicted criminals, combining physical punishment, as burns are very painful, with public humiliation (greatest if marked on a usually visual part of the body) which is here the more necessary goal, and with the imposition of an indelible criminal file. Robbers, like runaway slaves, were marked via the Romans with the letter F (fur); and the toilers within the mines, and convicts condemned to determine in gladiatorial shows, were branded on the brow for identity. Under Constantine I the face used to be no longer accredited to be so disfigured, the branding being at the hand, arm or calf.

The Acts of Sharbil report it applied, among different tortures, to a Christian between the eyes and on the cheeks in Parthian Edessa at the time of the Roman Emperor Trajan on a judge's order for refusal to sacrifice.

In the 16th century, German Anabaptists were branded with a go on their foreheads for refusing to recant their religion and sign up for the Roman Catholic church.[2]

In the North American Colonial settlements of the seventeenth and early 18th centuries, branding used to be a common punishment for the ones discovered accountable of crimes. The type of logo differed from crime to crime. Men and ladies sentenced for adultery were branded with an A letter on their chest, D for drunkenness and B for blasphemy or housebreaking, T on the hand for thief, SL at the cheek for seditious libel, R at the shoulder for rogue or vagabond, and F at the cheek for forgery. Those convicted of burglary at the Lords day have been branded upon their brow.[3][4]

During the early phases of the American Revolution some Loyalists have been branded at the face with the letters G.R (for George Rex, i.e. King George) by Patriots as punishment for perceived servility to the Crown.[5][6]

The mark in later occasions used to be additionally continuously selected as a code for the crime (e.g. in Canadian military prisons D for Desertion, BC for Bad Character; maximum branded males had been shipped off to a penal colony). Branding used to be used for a time via the Union Army throughout the American Civil War. Surgeon and Oxford English Dictionary contributor William Chester Minor was required to logo deserters at around the time of the Battle of the Wilderness.

Until 1832 in France, more than a few offenses carried the extra infamy of being branded with a fleur de lis and galley-slaves might be branded GAL or, once the galleys were replaced through the bagnes on land, TF (travaux forcés, 'forced' labor, i.e. exhausting labour) or TFP (travaux forcés à perpetuité, hard labour for life). In many of the German-speaking states, on the other hand, branding people was once unlawful.

Following the Conspiracy of the Slaves of 1749 in Malta, some slaves were branded with the letter R (for ribelli) on their forehead and condemned to the galleys for life.[7]

Branding tended to be abolished like other judicial mutilations (with notable exceptions, equivalent to amputation under sharia legislation), faster and extra widely than flogging, caning, and similar corporal punishments, which typically purpose 'handiest' at pain and at worst reason stripe scars, even supposing the most severe lashings (not unusual in penal colonies) on the subject of dosage and tool (such because the proverbial knout) will also prove to reason demise.

Branding in American slavery A replica of a slave branding iron at first used within the Atlantic slave business, on show at the Museum of Liverpool, England. Depiction of slave branding, from Illustrations of the American Anti-slavery Almanac for 1840

In Louisiana, there used to be a "black code", or Code Noir, which allowed the cropping of ears, shoulder branding, and hamstringing, the reducing of tendons close to the knee, as punishments for recaptured slaves. Slave house owners used extreme punishments to prevent flight, or break out. They would regularly brand the slaves' fingers, shoulders, buttocks, or cheeks with a branding iron.[8]

Branding used to be now and again used to mark recaptured runaway slaves to lend a hand the locals simply determine the runaway. Micajah Ricks, a slave proprietor in Raleigh, North Carolina, was in search of his slave and described, "I burnt her with a hot iron, on the left side of her face, I tried to make the letter M."[9]

Most slave homeowners would use whipping as their main approach, however at different times they would use branding to punish their slaves. Another testimony explains how a slave proprietor in Kentucky round 1848 was in search of his runaway slave. He described her having "a brand mark on the breast something like L blotched."[10] In South Carolina, there were many regulations which authorized the punishments slaves would obtain. When a slave ran away, if it used to be the first offense, the slave would receive not more than forty lashes. Then the second offense could be branding. The slave would have been marked with the letter R on their forehead signifying that they have been a prison, and a runaway.[11]

As spiritual initiation

Ceremonial Branding is an integral a part of non secular initiation in maximum Vaishnava sects. References to this custom can also be traced in texts similar to Narad Panchratra, Vaikhnasagama, Skanda Purana and so forth.[12] This observe remains to be in style amongst Madhava sect Brahmins of Karnataka in India.[13]

Branding in Britain

The punishment was adopted by the Anglo-Saxons, and the traditional regulation of England authorized the penalty. By the Statute of Vagabonds (1547) under King Edward VI, vagabonds and Gypsies had been ordered to be branded with a big V at the breast, and brawlers with F for "fraymaker"; slaves who ran away were branded with S at the cheek or brow. This law used to be repealed in England in 1550. From the time of Henry VII, branding used to be inflicted for all offences which won Benefit of clergy (branding of the thumbs was once used round 1600 at Old Bailey to ensure that the accused who had successfully used the Benefit of Clergy defence, via reading a passage from the Bible, could not use it greater than once), however it was once abolished for such in 1822. In 1698 it was enacted that those convicted of petty theft or larceny, who have been entitled to good thing about clergy, should be "burnt in the most visible part of the left cheek, nearest the nose." This special ordinance was once repealed in 1707. James Nayler, a Quaker who in the 12 months 1655 used to be accused of claiming to be the Messiah, was convicted of blasphemy in a highly publicized trial prior to the Second Protectorate Parliament and had his tongue bored via and his brow branded B for "blasphemer".

In the Lancaster Criminal Court, a branding iron continues to be preserved within the dock. It is a long bolt with a wooden care for at one end and an M (malefactor) on the other; shut by way of are two iron loops for firmly securing the hands right through the operation. The brander would, after examination, turn to the judge exclaiming "A fair mark, my lord." Criminals had been formerly ordered to carry up their fingers sooner than sentence to show if that they had been prior to now convicted.

In the 18th century, chilly branding or branding with chilly irons changed into the mode of nominally causing the punishment on prisoners of upper rank. "When Charles Moritz, a young German, visited England in 1782 he was much surprised at this custom, and in his diary mentioned the case of a clergyman who had fought a duel and killed his man in Hyde Park. Found guilty of manslaughter he was burnt in the hand, if that could be called burning which was done with a cold iron" (Markham's Ancient Punishments of Northants, 1886).

Such cases ended in branding turning into obsolete, and it was once abolished in 1829 excluding in terms of deserters from the military, who had been marked with the letter D, now not with hot irons but by tattooing with ink or gunpowder. Notoriously dangerous squaddies had been additionally branded with BC (unhealthy character). The British Mutiny Act of 1858 provided that the court-martial might, along with every other penalty, order deserters to be marked on the left side, 2 inches (5 cm) under the armpit, with the letter D, such letter to be now not lower than an inch lengthy. In 1879 this used to be abolished.

Branding in Australia

Offenders in Australia had been topic to branding in response to British law. In 1826, in Hobart, Joseph Clarke used to be charged with manslaughter and ‘sentenced to be burnt in the hand’. In 1850, in New South Wales, deserter Daniel O’Neil used to be tattooed with the letter ‘D’.[14]

Branding in Russia

Branding in Russia used to be used reasonably extensively in the 18th century and the primary part of the 19th century. Over time, crimson hot iron brands were regularly replaced through tattoo forums; criminals were first branded on the brow and cheeks, later at the again and palms. Branding used to be totally abolished in 1863.[15]

Branding prostitutes

Forced and enslaved prostitutes have often been tattooed or branded with a mark in their owners. Women and ladies being pressured into prostitution would have their boss's name or gang image inked or branded with scorching iron on their skin. In some organizations involved with the trafficking of women and girls like the mafias just about all prostitutes are marked. Some pimps and organisations use their identify or well-known image, others are the usage of secret signs.[16]

The branding is each painful and humiliating for the victim, especially when carried out with a branding iron, and could also be additionally a type of punishment and of psychological submission for the prostitutes.

Some years ago the brands have been usually small, simplest known through other pimps, sometimes hidden between the interior vaginal lips, even though different cases display that pimps haven't any factor with larger, extra noticeable brands.[17]

Persisting practices

Generally voluntary, regardless that continuously beneath severe social force, branding may be used as a painful type of initiation, serving each as staying power and motivation take a look at (ceremony of passage) and an everlasting membership mark, noticed as male bonding. Branding is thus practiced: By some side road gangs In arranged crime as "stripes" to signify a violent crime that the individual committed. Typically on the higher arm or upper torso. In prisons Sometimes as an excessive initiation within the increasingly more much less not unusual custom of painful hazing (otherwise most commonly paddling). Some individuals of school fraternities and sororities voluntarily elect to be branded with their fraternity/sorority letters. This is a ways much less common in sororities than fraternities and is especially prevalent in some historically African-American fraternities, such as Omega Psi Phi.[18] Branding can be utilized as a voluntary body ornament – a form of everlasting frame artwork somewhat like many tattoos.

Protests

In symbolic cohesion with Calf 269, protesters in Israel subjected themselves to branding on World Farm Animals Day (Gandhi's birthday): October 2, 2012. This act used to be emulated by others in England and the Czech Republic. An English protester who used to be interviewed justified the extremism as a response to the intense cruelty perpetrated by the dairy business similar to shooting calves at beginning.[19]

See additionally

Scarification for main points on beauty branding

Sources

 This article contains text from a publication now within the public area: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Branding". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Brand & Cauterize on EtymologyOnLine W. Andrews, Old Time Punishments (Hull, 1890) A. M. Earle, Curious Punishments of Bygone Days (London, 1896).

References

^ Human Rights Watch - Africa (September 1995). "Children in Sudan:Slaves, Street Children and Child Soldiers". Retrieved 2020-01-10. ^ Edward Bean Underhill, Martyrology of the Churches of Christ Commonly Called Baptists all the way through the Era of the Reformation, (1850), pg 118 ^ John A. Grigg; Peter C. Mancall, eds. (2008). British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. 54. ISBN 9781598840254. ^ Earle, Alice Morse (1896). Curious punishments of bygone days. Rutland, Vt.: C.E. Tuttle Co. pp. 146–147. ISBN 0-8048-0959-3. OCLC 355389. ^ Hoock, Holger (2017). Scars of independence : America's violent beginning (First ed.). New York. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8041-3728-7. OCLC 953617831. ^ Compeau, Timothy J. (2015). Dishonoured Americans: Loyalist Manhood and Political Death in Revolutionary America (Unpublished PhD Thesis). The University of Western Ontario. p. 105. ^ Sciberras, Sandro. "Maltese History - E. The Decline of the Order of St John In the 18th Century" (PDF). St. Benedict College. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-06. ^ "punishments". The Underground RailRoad: An Encyclopedia of People, Places, and Operations. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe. Retrieved Oct 3, 2013. ^ Weld, Theodore Dwight (1968). American Slavery As It Is. New York: Arno Press, Inc. pp. 21, 77, 108, 112. ^ Howe, S. W. (Winter 2009). "Slavery As Punishment: Original Public Meaning, Cruel and Unusual Punishments and the Neglected Clause in the Thirteenth Amendment". Arizona Law Review. 51 Ariz. L. Rev. 983. Retrieved Sep 20, 2013. ^ Higginbotham Jr., A. Leon (1978). In The Matter of Color Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. New York: Oxford University. pp. 176–184. ^ "Tapta Mudra Dharana". Uttaradi Math. Archived from the unique on 2014-04-19. Retrieved 2014-06-09. ^ Udupi, July 11, DHNS (2013-05-21). "'Tapta Mudra Dharana' ceremony held". Deccanherald.com. Retrieved 2014-06-09.CS1 maint: more than one names: authors listing (link) ^ Barnard, Simon (2016). Convict Tattoos: Marked Men and Women of Australia. Melbourne: Text Publishing. pp. 54–55. ISBN 9781925410235. ^ "Murders". Murders.ru. Retrieved 2014-06-09. ^ CNN: Old mark of slavery is getting used on sex trafficking sufferers ^ Irish Mirror: Pictured: Trafficked prostitutes BRANDED by means of pimps to turn they ‘personal’ them ^ Posey, Sandra, "Burning Messages: Interpreting African American Fraternity Brands and Their Bearers Archived 2017-01-18 at the Wayback Machine", New York Folklore Society Voices, Fall-Winter 2004. ^ Starke, Jonathan. "Vegans are branding their flesh in Leeds". Vice. Retrieved 10 April 2013.

External hyperlinks

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human branding. Wikisource has the textual content of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article Branding.Human Branding and Scarification Article Branding on the BME Encyclopedia The Hot Iron Database Scarification Blog at Scarwars.web Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Human_branding&oldid=1013807988"

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